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Wednesday, October 3, 2012

Social Conflict

       Conflict is basically due to differences in the characteristics of individuals in a social interaction with other individuals. These differences are related to physical characteristics such as, intelligence, knowledge, customs, and beliefs or convictions. By carrying individual characteristics in social interaction, conflict is a normal situation in any society and no one society has never experienced any conflict. Conflict will only disappear with the loss of society itself.
So, what is meant by social conflict? Here are some definitions of social conflict from the experts.

SOCIOLOGICALLY . Social process which involve among two or more parties in pursuit of their goal to inflict harm, damage and  injury.
Lewis Coser  “Social conflict is a struggle over values or claims to status, power, and scarce resources, in which the aims of the conflict group are not only to gain the desired values, but also to neutralize, injury, or eliminate rivals.
 Clinton F. Fink. Relationship conflict is related to purposes that can not be adjusted and can not be met due to a different value structure.

Gillin and Gillin. Conflict is part of the process of social interaction are contradictory. That is, conflict is part of a process of social interaction that occurs because of differences, whether physical, emotional, cultural, and behavioral.

Soerjono Soekanto. Conflict is a social process of individuals or groups who seek to fulfill its purpose by challenging the opposition which is accompanied by threats or violence.
Speaking of social conflict, of course, have also touched on the assumption of the conflict perspective in sociology studies. There are several basic assumptions as follows:
a. Each community at any time subject to change processes, social change are everywhere.
 b. Each community at any time to show disunity and conflicts, social conflicts are everywhere.
 c. Each element in a society contribute to the disintegration and change.
d. Every society is based on the coercion of some members over others.


FACTORS CAUSE CONFLICT
1. Individual difference: Individual differences can cause conflict among individual.
2. Cultural difference:  Culture conflict happens because the difference of personality among individual that grow with difference culture background.
3. The difference of interest : Every individual or group has different need and interest in seeing and doing things. It could be related to politic, economy, social and culture.
 4. Social change:  Social change can influence the way of thinking and point of view upon value, norm and attitude pattern. This condition can affect interaction among people and can trigger conflict or contravention.



The Form of Conflict

Realistic Conflict
Social conflicts that arise from frustrations of specific demands within a relationship and from estimates of gains of the participants, and that are directed at the presumed frustrating object, can be called realistic conflicts. Insofar as they are meanstoward specific results, they can be replaced by alternative modes of interaction with the contending party if such alternatives seen to be more adequate for realizing the end in view.

Nonrealistic Conflict
Nonrealistic conflicts, on the other hand, are not occasioned by the rival ends of the antagonists, but by the need for tension release of one or both of them. In this case the conflict is not oriented toward the attainment of specific results. In so far as unrealistic conflict is an end in itself, in so far as it affords only tension release, the chosen antagonist can be substituted for by anyother "suitable" target.
In realistic conflict, there exist functional alternatives with regard to the means of carrying out the conflict, as well as with regard to accomplishing desired results short of conflict; in non-realistic conflict, on the other hand, there exist only functional alternatives in the choice of antagonists.

The Impact of a conflict

Even though, conflict is dissociative process that lead to the violence, but conflict also a social process that brings about positive perspective for society. Conflict is considered positive if it is not contradicted with social relation pattern in social structure.
According to Lewis C. Coser, Conflict is normal condition that can strengthen structure social relations.  Conflict can be a sign of dynamic social relation. Society that allows conflict is potential society that can avoid from exploding conflict and social structure distruction.

Positive side of a conflict
1. Conflict can clarify a life aspect that is unclear and Incomplete in interpreting.
    (The different of opinion about problems in discussing about society can intensify (mempertajam)  a conclusion.
2. Conflict enables norms, values and social interaction readjustment in groups related to their needs. 
3. Conflict can trigger solidarity among members group who have conflict with another group.
4. Conflict can reduce the dependencies among individual and group.
5. Conflict can stimulate old norms to be alive and creates new norms.
6. Conflict can create balance among groups who are having a conflict in society.

Negative aspects of the conflicts
1. Crack/disintegration relation among individual or groups.
2. The damage of infrastructure and bring about death.
3. The change of individual personality.  Conflict can trigger hatred, suspicion
4. Bring about domination among stronger groups upon weak groups.

Conflict and violence
Conflict brings about dislike attitude, hatred and anger. When the attitudes are expressed in some actions, which destroy others, they become violence action. In other word violence is the continuity form of social conflict.
Violence is very identical with on purpose action to hurt, kill, and rape someone else. These kinds of actions are called direct violence.  Even, intimidation, human right violation, oppression, and terror are considered violence.     
According to humanist an action to provoke someone to do violence is considered violence. Misleading someone to do bad things is also violence action. This kind of violence is called indirect violence.

The theories about violence
1. Individual factor theory: All violence attitudes always begin from individual attitude. Individual factor or social factor can be trigger factor.
2. Group factor theory: individual tends to form group by performing their identity based on race, religion or ethnic.  These identities tend to be shown when they interact with others. Conflict or clashes among the difference bring about violence.
3. Group dynamical theory: The violence arises because of relative deprivation that happens in group or society. Faster social change cannot be followed by social system and value system.
 How to control conflict and violence
There are three conditions in order to conflict does not bring about violence
1. Every group has to be aware about conflict they have among them.
2. Controlling conflict only possible if the groups that have controversy or conflict are organized.
3. Every group with conflict has to obey rule play that has been agreed on.

       Generally, society has a mechanism to control conflict. The mechanism is called safety valve (Katup penyelamat). Safety valve is used to neutralize tension.

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