What it meant by research?
Research is scientific activity of analysing and constructing on certain systematic and consistent method.
Marzuki : Research is an attemp to collect, seek and analyze a fact on certain problem.
W. Lawrence Neuman : A method to collect information by using systematic procedural to get knowledge objectively.

The aims of research
1. To strengthen knowledge
2. To develop knowledge

The requirement of research
  1. Systematic, research does based on certain pattern.
  2. Planned, research does intendingly and doing by using steps. 
  3. Apply scientific concept.

Thinking Framework a researcher should have
 Analytic : He/She always analyze every question or problems occurred.
Critical : Using logical thinking and considering everything objectively based on 
                data and analysis of clear thought.
Skeptical: do not take for granted but questioning  every proof of problem and evidence.
Honest: Do not manipulate data for personal intention. 
Open minded: Be ready to give an explanation of the research and opened to be criticized.

Besides of framework, researcher’s attitudes also influence the data collected and the result.
The attitudes below should be possessed by a researcher:
Objectivity : A researcher does not insert subjective opinion. Data must be pure from field.
Factual : researcher works based on data have been collected.
Competence: A researcher applies certain method and technique in doing research and also 
                       able toaccomplish the research.

 Research Design
1. Select research topic
     The following are some guidance to consider in determining topic
      a. Interesting and important to observe
      b. possible to do by researcher (coverage issue by the researcher)
      c. The availability of data
      d. it has practical use
      e. No plagiarism allowed
2. Formulate the problems or questions of the research.
      a. the problems are formulated in questions
      b. the problems are formulated in simple sentence
      c. the formulation reflect the goal to achieve
3. Choosing research object (population, sample , and research variables)
     a. population : whole elements which are the members of the observed object.
     b. sample       : the chosen research  object to be observed deeply as
                                the example of population.
         -stratified sample : sampling divides population member into strata
                                            or classes. (E.g grade 10, grade 11, grade 12)
        -cluster sample : choose the sample randomly in every strata.
     c. variable  : variables is any characteristic that may assume more
                           than one set of value or condition in individual or group.
4. Determining data sources.
5. Determining research approach.

1. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH : is an approach that focuses on the data analysis that classified 
                                                        with number. It also determines data quantity collected. 
                                                        Data have been collected will analyze statistically. 
                                                        Usually use survey technique.
2. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH : is an approach to collect data and does not formulate 
                                                     with numbers. It determines data quality or the depth of data. 
                                                      Usually use interview technique.


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