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Friday, May 23, 2014

outline final exam grade 10

1 and 2 understanding quantitative and qualitative data
3 and 4 understanding social research
5. and 6 framework thinking of researcher
7. Researcher attitude
8. descriptive research
9. Library research
10.  understanding about hypothesis
11. primary and secondary data
12. steps doing e research
13. questionnaire
14. observation
15. interview
16. topic
17. formulating problem
18. inductive and deductive method
19. social research
20. Collecting data
21. Preparation data analysis
22. interview
23. Editing
24. coding
25. tabulation
26. parts of table
27.variable
28.  how to make table

Friday, March 7, 2014

Outline Mid2 Semester Exam/kisi-kisi

1.culture according to melville Herkovits
2. the word of kebudayaan
3. non-material culture
4.universal culture
5.enculturation meaning
6. oldest religion (E.B. Taylor)
7. oldest technique of livelihood
8.culture's characteristic
9. innovation
10. The impacts of cultural assimilation
11. diffusion
12. language function
13. assimilation
14.animism
15.elements of culture
16.culture
17. culture was learned
18.the reasons human created culture
19.the characteristic of culture
20. cultural dynamic



CULTURE




Culture consists of the beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics common to the members of a particular group or society. Through culture, people and groups define themselves, conform to society's shared values, and contribute to society. Thus, culture includes many societal aspects: language, customs, values, norms, mores, rules, tools, technologies, products, organizations, and institutions. This latter term institution refers to clusters of rules and cultural meanings associated with specific social activities. Common institutions are the family, education, religion, work, and health care.

Popularly speaking, being cultured means being well-educated, knowledgeable of the arts, stylish, and well-mannered. High culture—generally pursued by the upper class—refers to classical music, theater, fine arts, and other sophisticated pursuits. Members of the upper class can pursue high art because they have cultural capital, which means the professional credentials, education, knowledge, and verbal and social skills necessary to attain the “property, power, and prestige” to “get ahead” socially. Low culture, or popular culture—generally pursued by the working and middle classes—refers to sports, movies, television sitcoms and soaps, and rock music. Remember that sociologists define culture differently than they do cultured, high culture, low culture, and popular culture.
Sociologists define society as the people who interact in such a way as to share a common culture. The cultural bond may be ethnic or racial, based on gender, or due to shared beliefs, values, and activities. The term society can also have a geographic meaning and refer to people who share a common culture in a particular location. For example, people living in arctic climates developed different cultures from those living in desert cultures. In time, a large variety of human cultures arose around the world.
Culture and society are intricately related. A culture consists of the “objects” of a society, whereas a society consists of the people who share a common culture. When the terms culture and society first acquired their current meanings, most people in the world worked and lived in small groups in the same locale. In today's world of 6 billion people, these terms have lost some of their usefulness because increasing numbers of people interact and share resources globally. Still, people tend to use culture and society in a more traditional sense: for example, being a part of a “racial culture” within the larger “U.S. society.”

Material and Non-Material Culture
 
Sociologists describe two interrelated aspects of human culture: the physical objects of the culture and the ideas associated with these objects.
Material culture refers to the physical objects, resources, and spaces that people use to define their culture. These include homes, neighborhoods, cities, schools, churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, offices, factories and plants, tools, means of production, goods and products, stores, and so forth. All of these physical aspects of a culture help to define its members' behaviors and perceptions. For example, technology is a vital aspect of material culture in today's United States. American students must learn to use computers to survive in college and business, in contrast to young adults in the Yanomamo society in the Amazon who must learn to build weapons and hunt.
Non-material culture refers to the nonphysical ideas that people have about their culture, including beliefs, values, rules, norms, morals, language, organizations, and institutions. For instance, the non-material cultural concept of religion consists of a set of ideas and beliefs about God, worship, morals, and ethics. These beliefs, then, determine how the culture responds to its religious topics, issues, and events.
When considering non-material culture, sociologists refer to several processes that a culture uses to shape its members' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Four of the most important of these are symbols, language, values, and norms.

Symbols and Language in Human Culture

To the human mind, symbols are cultural representations of reality. Every culture has its own set of symbols associated with different experiences and perceptions. Thus, as a representation, a symbol's meaning is neither instinctive nor automatic. The culture's members must interpret and over time reinterpret the symbol.
Symbols occur in different forms: verbal or nonverbal, written or unwritten. They can be anything that conveys a meaning, such as words on the page, drawings, pictures, and gestures. Clothing, homes, cars, and other consumer items are symbols that imply a certain level of social status.
Perhaps the most powerful of all human symbols is language—a system of verbal and sometimes written representations that are culturally specific and convey meaning about the world.

Thursday, March 6, 2014

Outlines midsemester 2

1 and 2 understanding quantitative and qualitative data
3 and 4 understanding social research
5. and 6 framework thinking of researcher
7. Researcher attitude
8. descriptive research
9. Library research
10.  understanding about hypothesis
11. primary and secondary data
12. steps doing e research
13. questionnaire
14. observation
15. interview
16. topic
17. formulating problem
18. inductive and deductive method
19. social research

Method of Data Collecting in Research

1. Observation
     Observation is an intended and sytematic study of social  phenomena
      through observing social life.
      a. Participative observation
          An observation in which observer participates among the respondents activities.
      b. Simulation/Experimental Observation
          To analyze situation by using experimental observation.

      The strengths of Observation
       - easy and direct in having experience with social phenomena.
       - can collect information both visible and invisible phenomena such as psycological
          phenomena.
       - able to take note from many respondents in the same time.

      The weaknesses of observation
       - taking more time
       - observe is sometime behave unnaturally.  

2. Interview
    Collecting data through direct interaction with data source.

    Based on Characteristics
    a. guided interview (wawancara terpimpin)
    b. unguided interview
    c. free guided interview.

3. Questionnair
     it can be called written interview. Questionnaire uses a set question as an instrument to collect data from respondents related to certain topic.

   
    b.

Monday, March 3, 2014

SOCIOCULTURAL RESEARCH





What it meant by research?
Research is scientific activity of analysing and constructing on certain systematic and consistent method.
Marzuki : Research is an attemp to collect, seek and analyze a fact on certain problem.
W. Lawrence Neuman : A method to collect information by using systematic procedural to get knowledge objectively.

The aims of research
1. To strengthen knowledge
2. To develop knowledge

The requirement of research
  1. Systematic, research does based on certain pattern.
  2. Planned, research does intendingly and doing by using steps. 
  3. Apply scientific concept.

Thinking Framework a researcher should have
 Analytic : He/She always analyze every question or problems occurred.
Critical : Using logical thinking and considering everything objectively based on 
                data and analysis of clear thought.
Skeptical: do not take for granted but questioning  every proof of problem and evidence.
Honest: Do not manipulate data for personal intention. 
Open minded: Be ready to give an explanation of the research and opened to be criticized.

Besides of framework, researcher’s attitudes also influence the data collected and the result.
The attitudes below should be possessed by a researcher:
Objectivity : A researcher does not insert subjective opinion. Data must be pure from field.
Factual : researcher works based on data have been collected.
Competence: A researcher applies certain method and technique in doing research and also 
                       able toaccomplish the research.

 Research Design
1. Select research topic
     The following are some guidance to consider in determining topic
      a. Interesting and important to observe
      b. possible to do by researcher (coverage issue by the researcher)
      c. The availability of data
      d. it has practical use
      e. No plagiarism allowed
2. Formulate the problems or questions of the research.
      a. the problems are formulated in questions
      b. the problems are formulated in simple sentence
      c. the formulation reflect the goal to achieve
3. Choosing research object (population, sample , and research variables)
     a. population : whole elements which are the members of the observed object.
     b. sample       : the chosen research  object to be observed deeply as
                                the example of population.
         -stratified sample : sampling divides population member into strata
                                            or classes. (E.g grade 10, grade 11, grade 12)
        -cluster sample : choose the sample randomly in every strata.
     c. variable  : variables is any characteristic that may assume more
                           than one set of value or condition in individual or group.
4. Determining data sources.
5. Determining research approach.

BASED ON THE METHOD OR APPROACH, RESEARCH CAN BE DIVIDED INTO
1. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH : is an approach that focuses on the data analysis that classified 
                                                        with number. It also determines data quantity collected. 
                                                        Data have been collected will analyze statistically. 
                                                        Usually use survey technique.
2. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH : is an approach to collect data and does not formulate 
                                                     with numbers. It determines data quality or the depth of data. 
                                                      Usually use interview technique.

Sunday, November 24, 2013

Social Differentiation




          Social differentiation is one of social structure model.
          What is social differentiation?
    - Social classification horizontally.
In society there are many kinds of groups based on many aspects. For example: religion, ethnic, gender, occupation. We cannot judge that certain group is superior than others.
It is unfair to judge that woman is superior than man or on the contrary.
          In sociology, grouping or classification such society cannot be done vertically, but horizontally.
          Social classification is called social differentiation.
          In fact, there are some cases that certan group or ethnic consider themselves are superior than other groups.
   For example, three decades ago: white people in South Africa considered they were superior than black   
   people. Such point of view is called racialism.
          In plural society, classification horizontally based on race, ethnic, Klan and religion is called social complexity (kemajemukan) and classification based on occupation or sex is called social heterogeneity.

Social grouping

          Social grouping
                1. Vertical grouping (Social stratification)
                2. Horizontal grouping (Social differentiation)
                    2.1 Social complexity (race, Klan, ethnic and religion).
                    2.2 Social Heterogeneity (occupation and gender.

The clues of social complexity

          Based on physical character
                The differentiation arises because of the certain differences for example, skin color, hair
               shape, eyes shape, nose shape and jaw shape.
          Based on social character
                The differentiation arises because of occupation, which triggers the difference of way of
               thinking and attitude pattern in society. For example, role different, prestige, and authority.

          Based on cultural character
                Cultural differentiation correlate with society way of thinking which related to values they
              internalize. For example, religion, family system, perseverance (keuletan), tenacity   
             (ketangguhan).

The shapes of social differentiation

          We can divide society in six criteria: race, ethnic, Klan, religion, and sex (gender)
1.         Race differentiation
               Race is a group people with the same physical character. When we mention one race
               group, it refers to physical character not cultural character.
       Ralp Linton Divided human into three dominant race groups
          Mongoloid race (yellow and brown)
          Negroid race (black)
          Caucasoid (white)
Out of these groups there are particular race such as Australoid, Veddoid, Polynesia and Ainu.
        The character of the race groups
                1.Mongoloid Race
        Skin color are yellow and brown, straight hair, a few body hair, chink-eyes (especially Asian mongoloid).
        Divides into two races:
                             Asia mongoloid and Indian Mongoloid.
                                * Asia mongoloid consists of Tionghoa sub
                                   race (Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam) and 
                                   Malayan sub race (Malaysia, Indonesia  
                                   and the Philippines)
                                * Indian mongoloid consists of Indian people in North Amaerica and South America. 
                2. Caucasoid race
                     - Sharp nose, White skin, blonde hair or brown-black, tight eyelid (kelopak mata lurus).
                     - Having five sub races: Nordic, Alpine, Mediterranean, Armenian, and India
                3. Negroid Race
      -Having curly hair, black skin, thick lips, straight eyelid.
      - Having five sub races: Negrito, Nilitz, Jungle Negro, Oceanic negro and Hottentots- 
         Boysesmen.
A.L Kroeber (1876), anthropologist, New Jersey. Classified human race into five
          Australoid race (Native Australian: Aborigine)
          Mongoloid race
        Asiatic Mongoloid (North Asia, Central Asia, and east asia)
        Malayan Mongoloid (Southeast Asia people and Native Taiwan)
        American Mongoloid (Native American).
          Caucasoid Race
        Nordic (North Europe, Baltic area)
        Alpine (Central Europe and east Europe)
        Mediterranean (Middle sea area, North Africa, Armenian, Arab and Iron)
        Indic (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka)
          Negroid Race
        African Negroid (Africa Continent)
        Negrito (Central Africa, Malayan Cape :Semang people in The Philippines)
        Melanesian (Papua, and Melanesia) 
                    Special races (There are not part of four main races)
        Bushman (Kalahari Desert- South Africa)
        Veddoid (Sri Lanka remote places, South Sulawesi)
        Polynesian (Micronesia island and Polynesia)
        Ainu (Hokkaido Island, Japan)

Some factors distinguish the physical characteristic of every race
  1. Geographical condition and Climate condition (people in cold climate having sharp nose, whereas, people in tropical climate having big nose)
  2. Food Factor (the varieties of food trigger varieties of body shape. People with big posture live in cold area, whereas, people in tropical climate having small posture)
  3. Amalgamation factor (married factor).

Today, migration and mobile people influence the difference of race character . The same race it doesn’t mean having the same character. Amalgamation is the factor. For example: Indonesian x white= indo, Caucasoid race X American Mongoloid= Mestizo.