Grade X, Term 1: The Basic Concepts of Sociology

What is meant by basic concept/idea of sociology?
          Social concept which is used to study and understand about social life reality. 

According to this concept
          The object of sociology is society and social setting such as social value and social norm.     Either society or social value and social norm are human products.
         Society influences and shapes human behavior

Sociology has two basic concepts
a. Sociology as a science
    As a science sociology study about society and its circumstance which is constructed      
    systematically based on logical analyzes.
b.  Sociology as a method
     As a method sociology is a way of thinking methodologically to reveal social realities in society   
     by using scientific procedure and theory.

The characteristic sociology as a science
          Empirical   : based on logical research and it is not speculative theory.
          Theoretical : developing abstraction from observation or research that is arranged logically
                             and has a purpose to explain causal relation. 
          Cumulative: Sociology always change and develop based on theory that is exist before. 
          Non-Ethical: Sociology doesn’t give morality judgments  on facts in society (right-wrong).

There are two scientific methods in sociology
1. Qualitative method: Describing researches based on examining upon the data.
2. Quantitative method: Focusing on numeral or phenomena that is measured by using scale, index                                             or chart.

          The first person who states sociology as a science is Emile Durkheim. Durkheim states that sociology has a clear object study, which is social fact. Durkheim defines social fact as the way of acting, thinking that come from out of the individual. (shaking hand using right hand). Whereas, about methodology on sociology he states value free concept. (an observer must keep distant to the object that he/she examines)

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