• Social differentiation is one of social structure model.
• What is social differentiation?
- Social classification horizontally.
In society there are many kinds of groups based on many aspects. For example: religion, ethnic, gender, occupation. We cannot judge that certain group is superior than others.
It is unfair to judge that woman is superior than man or on the contrary.
• In sociology, grouping or classification such society cannot be done vertically, but horizontally.
• Social classification is called social differentiation.
• In fact, there are some cases that certan group or ethnic consider themselves are superior than other groups.
For example, three decades ago: white people in South Africa considered they were superior than black
people. Such point of view is called racialism.
people. Such point of view is called racialism.
• In plural society, classification horizontally based on race, ethnic, Klan and religion is called social complexity (kemajemukan) and classification based on occupation or sex is called social heterogeneity.
• Social grouping
1. Vertical grouping (Social stratification)
2. Horizontal grouping (Social differentiation)
2.1 Social complexity (race, Klan, ethnic and religion).
2.2 Social Heterogeneity (occupation and gender.
The clues of social complexity
• Based on physical character
The differentiation arises because of the certain differences for example, skin color, hair
shape, eyes shape, nose shape and jaw shape.
• Based on social character
The differentiation arises because of occupation, which triggers the difference of way of
thinking and attitude pattern in society. For example, role different, prestige, and authority.
• Based on cultural character
Cultural differentiation correlate with society way of thinking which related to values they
internalize. For example, religion, family system, perseverance (keuletan), tenacity
The shapes of social differentiation
• We can divide society in six criteria: race, ethnic, Klan, religion, and sex (gender)
1. Race differentiation
Race is a group people with the same physical character. When we mention one race
group, it refers to physical character not cultural character.
Ralp Linton Divided human into three dominant race groups
• Mongoloid race (yellow and brown)
• Negroid race (black)
• Caucasoid (white)
Out of these groups there are particular race such as Australoid, Veddoid, Polynesia and Ainu.
The character of the race groups
– Skin color are yellow and brown, straight hair, a few body hair, chink-eyes (especially Asian mongoloid).
– Divides into two races:
Asia mongoloid and Indian Mongoloid.
* Asia mongoloid consists of Tionghoa sub
race (Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam) and
Malayan sub race (Malaysia, Indonesia
and the Philippines)
* Indian mongoloid consists of Indian people in North Amaerica and South America.
2. Caucasoid race
- Sharp nose, White skin, blonde hair or brown-black, tight eyelid (kelopak mata lurus).
- Having five sub races: Nordic, Alpine, Mediterranean, Armenian, and India
3. Negroid Race
-Having curly hair, black skin, thick lips, straight eyelid.
- Having five sub races: Negrito, Nilitz, Jungle Negro, Oceanic negro and Hottentots-
A.L Kroeber (1876), anthropologist, New Jersey. Classified human race into five
• Australoid race (Native Australian: Aborigine)
• Mongoloid race
– Asiatic Mongoloid (North Asia, Central Asia, and east asia)
– Malayan Mongoloid (Southeast Asia people and Native Taiwan)
– American Mongoloid (Native American).
• Caucasoid Race
– Nordic (North Europe, Baltic area)
– Alpine (Central Europe and east Europe)
– Mediterranean (Middle sea area, North Africa, Armenian, Arab and Iron)
– Indic (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka)
• Negroid Race
– African Negroid (Africa Continent)
– Negrito (Central Africa, Malayan Cape :Semang people in The Philippines)
– Melanesian (Papua, and Melanesia)
Special races (There are not part of four main races)
– Bushman (Kalahari Desert- South Africa)
– Veddoid (Sri Lanka remote places, South Sulawesi)
– Polynesian (Micronesia island and Polynesia)
– Ainu (Hokkaido Island, Japan)
Some factors distinguish the physical characteristic of every race
- Geographical condition and Climate condition (people in cold climate having sharp nose, whereas, people in tropical climate having big nose)
- Food Factor (the varieties of food trigger varieties of body shape. People with big posture live in cold area, whereas, people in tropical climate having small posture)
- Amalgamation factor (married factor).
Today, migration and mobile people influence the difference of race character . The same race it doesn’t mean having the same character. Amalgamation is the factor. For example: Indonesian x white= indo, Caucasoid race X American Mongoloid= Mestizo.