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Sunday, November 24, 2013

Social Differentiation




          Social differentiation is one of social structure model.
          What is social differentiation?
    - Social classification horizontally.
In society there are many kinds of groups based on many aspects. For example: religion, ethnic, gender, occupation. We cannot judge that certain group is superior than others.
It is unfair to judge that woman is superior than man or on the contrary.
          In sociology, grouping or classification such society cannot be done vertically, but horizontally.
          Social classification is called social differentiation.
          In fact, there are some cases that certan group or ethnic consider themselves are superior than other groups.
   For example, three decades ago: white people in South Africa considered they were superior than black   
   people. Such point of view is called racialism.
          In plural society, classification horizontally based on race, ethnic, Klan and religion is called social complexity (kemajemukan) and classification based on occupation or sex is called social heterogeneity.

Social grouping

          Social grouping
                1. Vertical grouping (Social stratification)
                2. Horizontal grouping (Social differentiation)
                    2.1 Social complexity (race, Klan, ethnic and religion).
                    2.2 Social Heterogeneity (occupation and gender.

The clues of social complexity

          Based on physical character
                The differentiation arises because of the certain differences for example, skin color, hair
               shape, eyes shape, nose shape and jaw shape.
          Based on social character
                The differentiation arises because of occupation, which triggers the difference of way of
               thinking and attitude pattern in society. For example, role different, prestige, and authority.

          Based on cultural character
                Cultural differentiation correlate with society way of thinking which related to values they
              internalize. For example, religion, family system, perseverance (keuletan), tenacity   
             (ketangguhan).

The shapes of social differentiation

          We can divide society in six criteria: race, ethnic, Klan, religion, and sex (gender)
1.         Race differentiation
               Race is a group people with the same physical character. When we mention one race
               group, it refers to physical character not cultural character.
       Ralp Linton Divided human into three dominant race groups
          Mongoloid race (yellow and brown)
          Negroid race (black)
          Caucasoid (white)
Out of these groups there are particular race such as Australoid, Veddoid, Polynesia and Ainu.
        The character of the race groups
                1.Mongoloid Race
        Skin color are yellow and brown, straight hair, a few body hair, chink-eyes (especially Asian mongoloid).
        Divides into two races:
                             Asia mongoloid and Indian Mongoloid.
                                * Asia mongoloid consists of Tionghoa sub
                                   race (Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam) and 
                                   Malayan sub race (Malaysia, Indonesia  
                                   and the Philippines)
                                * Indian mongoloid consists of Indian people in North Amaerica and South America. 
                2. Caucasoid race
                     - Sharp nose, White skin, blonde hair or brown-black, tight eyelid (kelopak mata lurus).
                     - Having five sub races: Nordic, Alpine, Mediterranean, Armenian, and India
                3. Negroid Race
      -Having curly hair, black skin, thick lips, straight eyelid.
      - Having five sub races: Negrito, Nilitz, Jungle Negro, Oceanic negro and Hottentots- 
         Boysesmen.
A.L Kroeber (1876), anthropologist, New Jersey. Classified human race into five
          Australoid race (Native Australian: Aborigine)
          Mongoloid race
        Asiatic Mongoloid (North Asia, Central Asia, and east asia)
        Malayan Mongoloid (Southeast Asia people and Native Taiwan)
        American Mongoloid (Native American).
          Caucasoid Race
        Nordic (North Europe, Baltic area)
        Alpine (Central Europe and east Europe)
        Mediterranean (Middle sea area, North Africa, Armenian, Arab and Iron)
        Indic (Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka)
          Negroid Race
        African Negroid (Africa Continent)
        Negrito (Central Africa, Malayan Cape :Semang people in The Philippines)
        Melanesian (Papua, and Melanesia) 
                    Special races (There are not part of four main races)
        Bushman (Kalahari Desert- South Africa)
        Veddoid (Sri Lanka remote places, South Sulawesi)
        Polynesian (Micronesia island and Polynesia)
        Ainu (Hokkaido Island, Japan)

Some factors distinguish the physical characteristic of every race
  1. Geographical condition and Climate condition (people in cold climate having sharp nose, whereas, people in tropical climate having big nose)
  2. Food Factor (the varieties of food trigger varieties of body shape. People with big posture live in cold area, whereas, people in tropical climate having small posture)
  3. Amalgamation factor (married factor).

Today, migration and mobile people influence the difference of race character . The same race it doesn’t mean having the same character. Amalgamation is the factor. For example: Indonesian x white= indo, Caucasoid race X American Mongoloid= Mestizo. 

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